Mix Recipes: Clear and present vocals

Getting your vocals to sit right on top at the front of your mix is desirable for any vocal focused song. Lackluster vocal production is like a glowing neon sign that says, “home studio recording!” This tutorial covers a simple mix recipe for getting your vocals right out there in the front of your mix with clarity and presence.

Step 1: A good foundation

It is fairly common knowledge that “fix it in the mix” does not really work. Still it is worth mentioning that you should strive to get the best vocal recording “on tape” that you possibly can. You don’t need to break the bank on a TLM 67. Something as simple as an SM57 or AT2020 will do and I’ve certainly gotten great results with lesser microphones than even those. So use the cleanest mic you have, make sure your home studio is as low noise as possible, and try to nail a solid performance with feeling.

Step 2: Clarity

Most vocal recordings I’ve dealt with suffer from being too robust in the lower range. This causes the vocals to lose intelligibility as well as causing masking of guitars, bass and other instruments with low frequency information. You first step in combat against muddy lows is to record your track with the low cut filter of your microphone turned on (if it has one). I always do this. My two most used vocal mics have their filters set at 50Hz and 70Hz so they are well below the range of usable vocal frequencies. The only exception I could think of for this rule is if you were recording something like an a capella quartet with a really low bass singer, but even then you might still use the filter.

Some EQ can be applied after the track is recorded to further clean up the bass frequencies and eliminate muddiness and masking. I’m going to use the Free Queue equalizer but I also recommend the excellent Renaissance EQ. I like to use a low shelf if the track was recorded with a microphone’s high pass filter engaged or a high pass filter if the mic didn’t have one or it wasn’t turned on.

Using the Free Queue low shelving band, turn the frequency and gain both all the way down.

Free Queue eq plugin starting eq settings for vocals Free Queue eq frequency response of the low shelf
Figure 1: Starting low shelf eq setting

From Figure 1 you can see the frequency response of the low shelf is affecting frequencies as high as 500Hz. This is due to the gentle, musical slope of the low shelf and the extreme -12dB gain of the shelf. You should already hear a difference in the low end clarity. Start turning the frequency knob to sweep upward. Listen closely to the vocal. What you are listening for is the vocals getting clearer and more transparent and at some point they start to become thin. At this point you have gone too far. Hone the frequency control back and forth until you strike the optimal balance of transparent and thin for your mix. For this particular mix I ended up at about 150Hz for the low shelf. I almost always leave the gain at -12dB when using an EQ for this purpose but feel free to make some adjustments here if it is not right for your mix. Always remember that settings for one mix don’t always work for any other mix.

The low end has been cleaned up a lot and you should already hear your vocals with a lot more clarity and that commercial sounding transparency. The last step is to add some presence.

Step 3: Presence

The word presence tends to conjure up an instant association with EQ when used in audio circles. In this context it is more about the “in your face-ness” of the vocals than what simple EQ can provide. Instead of reaching for that EQ we will use a vocal-centric dynamics processor to bring the vocals right to the front of the mix. You can perform this trick with a standard compressor and a lot of automation followed by an analog warming plugin but if you’re anything like me then you really want something with just one knob that says, “give me more of what I want.” I just don’t like spending lots of time with multiple parameters or getting mired in automation when I’m trying to be creative with a mix. Luckily there are at least two plugins made especially for this task. This mix tutorial will be using the VescoFx Provoker but the Rennaissance Vox plugin is another good choice.

Using Provoker for this task is simple as can be. Turn the big knob until you reach the desired amount of cut, presence, and grit on the vocal track. I tend to settle in the 30-50% range but it will be very dependent on your source material and needs of your mix. Harder edged styles will tend toward the top end of the scale while ballads or softer voices will be near the bottom. I came up with a setting of 40% for the sound samples below.

VescoFx Provoker vocal compressor
Figure 2: Provoker main knob

With no other tweaking the vocal will be your face and right on top of the mix. It cuts through easily with a Provoker style effect. Have a listen and see for yourself.

Case study: Lovin’ Cup

Here is one section of my dry vocal recording with and without backing track.

Dry vocal
The raw performance sounds good with lots of feeling so we aren’t going to sweat the technical detail of the 10dB difference in volume between the first two phrases and the last three. When you listen to the mix you will hear the quiet phrases get buried and the loud ones almost seem to cut in and out. Since the performance is there we’re going to work with this take. Let’s clean up the low end to add some clarity to the vocal.

Vox with EQ
There are only subtle differences in the visual but the sound has changed drastically. Next we add the Provoker.

Provoker Vox
The full mix sounds a lot better now. You can hear the first two phrases just as well as the others and the vocal is not coming in and out at all. Visually, it still looks like there is a big differnece in volume between the phrases, but when measured we can see there is only a 4dB difference between peaks where there used to be a 10dB difference. We don’t really want to go for everything peaking at the same level because the music will start to take on a squashed, lifeless quality. Retention of dynamics is a good thing, even when we reduce them. Remember, reduce, don’t eliminate.

For comparison, listen to the vocal final vocal track without the EQ.

  • Vocal, full mix with EQ bypassed (vocal interferes with bass and kick)

The vocals have a lot of low frequency energy that is stomping on the bass and kick drum when that EQ is bypassed. It would be hard to hear the effect of the low shelf before we applied Provoker but the muffled sound of the vocals without the EQ is quite apparent once the levels are all working out. Working with low shelves (or high pass filters) like this can make a big difference in making your home studio recording sound more like a pro studio recording. You can read a bit more about this technique in this related article.

Plugins

Here are some of my favorite plugins for performing the techniques described in this article.

Waves Musicians 2 Native Software Waves Musicians Bundle 2 price check
This low cost bundle from Waves includes the Renaissance Equalizer and Renaissance Vox processors which can be used together to produce the sound in this tutorial. The Renaissance Compressor and Waves Doubler are two other essential mix plugins in this bundle. If you have been thinking about stepping up to Waves quality then this should be your entry point.
Free Queue VescoFx Free Queue get it
This no frills EQ has been praised for its simplicity and clean operation. The price is also hard to beat!
Provoker VescoFx Provoker price check
The Provoker is a vocal centric dynamics processor which can add analog style grit to your signal. You can go from cat’s meow to lion’s roar with the movement of one giant knob right in the center. Sounds great on drums too!

Your home recording studio is your playground. Have fun!

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23 Responses to “Mix Recipes: Clear and present vocals”

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  1. Eric says:

    Great to see you posting again. You sound clips aren’t link correctly tho. I found em to check it all out, but you need to relink them. How’s T3D coming along? I’m using TGEA now. ;-)

  2. bvesco says:

    Thanks for the heads up on the sound links guys. I got them all fixed in the article now.

    I should point out that the difference between the Provoker clips with and without the EQ are going to be hard to hear unless you’re listening on a decent system. The bass masking is pretty subtle, but can really make the difference between a good mix and a great mix.

    Torque3D going great, though I’m not directly involved in that project. Love bein at the garage though!

  3. thanks good results..

  4. HogieWan says:

    Good article.

    I like to use a multiband compressor for vocals. C3 is a good free VST plugin for this. You might want to try it out.

    Also, I like a high pass filter on vocal tracks, but I’m always worried about turning on my mic’s filter in case I want some of the low end left. For a mic with a filter, do you think there is a difference in using the mic’s filter or a vst filter?

    • bvesco says:

      Using a multiband compressor on vocals can work great as long as you take great care not to get the very lows or the very highs compressed too much in relation to the rest of the signal. It takes very careful tuning amongst the frequency bands to create a balanced signal.

      As for the high-pass filter, I personally always turn it on at the mic when recording vocals. There’s certainly going to be a “difference” between using an EQ plugin or the filter on the mic, but I won’t be so presumptuous as to tell you which you’ll like better. One advantage of doing it at the mic is you don’t have to worry about the source signal getting corrupted by a low frequency thump that might cause clipping. If your singer kicks the mic stand during the perfect take then the filter on the mic might just save you from a giant clip leaving you with a treatable artifact. If it goes into clipping from a massive low frequency bit of energy then your job is going to be much harder. Try it both ways and decide for yourself which you like better, that’s how I made up my mind!

      • HogieWan says:

        What I normally do is smash all the tresholds down with an higher ratio ~6:1 and then move the crossovers for the “best” tone. Then i back all of the settings off and start slowly tweaking the compressors. One of the hardest things to do with MB compression is setting the crossover correctly.

  5. Paul says:

    Do you know of any equivalent mac based plugins like the Provoker. I love the sound it gets but i can’t use it in logic.

    • bvesco says:

      Right now the best bet is to use the Waves Renaissance Vox processor on Mac. RVox doesn’t quite get the same sound as Provoker but it is the same type of plugin so will still help bring your vocals to the front. The problem is you’ve got a higher price for entry there. I do plan on getting a Mac AU version of Provoker out but that could be a while before that happens.

  6. Mister Trent says:

    I cannot say enough how much I think Provoker is the best vocal processor for the abovementioned tasks. I have Waves Vox and although it does what it says it does, it is nowhere NEAR as effective as Provoker.

    I now use Provoker on every single vocal and bass track I record at home and it has vastly sped up my workflow and gotten me WAY closer to closing the gap against the big boys. I used to resort to every trick in the book- compression, fader riding, etc. to get a vocal track to “hang together” but the aural result sounded like utter crap done by a hack engineer (which sadly, it was! LOL.)

    But Provoker fixes all that (and here’s the important part) in a very TRANSPARENT fashion..it sounds like NOTHING has been done to fix the vocals…yet suddenly, they are present and up front, with all nuances highlighted and detailed.

    I am sure there is some compression going on underneath the hood, but it doesn’t SOUND like it. It sounds completely natural- if you later wanted to apply a tube sim or a certain comp for coloration you could, but that is at your discretion.

    So now, recording bass and vocals has become almost a JOKE it’s so easy..I just tell vocalists to “have at it” and just be themselves. Before I would have to obsess over multiple takes and making sure they were the “right” distance from the mic instead of concentrating on what REALLY matters..their PERFORMANCE.

    Also, slap bass players, or indie bass guys that have dynamics all over the map…hard to tame a lot of that stuff but Provoker totally takes care of it in the mix…it is literally a “set it and forget it” affair. I can’t believe how easy it is to use!

    Email me at [email protected] if you would like to speak more about this, I think the examples above speak for themselves but I can certainly point to things I have done as well.

    Thanks Mr. Vesco and good luck with this product, Mister Trent

  7. Hey Ben, I cant find a contact for email anywhere. I recently bought one of your plug-ins but failed to realize it was only for windows. After reading your vocal tutorial I was really hoping to use your provoker and even spent $100 on a vst to rtas convertor so I could run it on my Pro-Tools rig. Is there anyway to make it run on mac, and if not is it possible for a refund. I really enjoy your tutorials. Thanks a lot, Gregg

  8. bvesco says:

    I am writing a response to the email address used in your sig. I’m sure we will be able to work it out.

  9. listen says:

    My music sounds like your final mixes, how do i get it to sound better

  10. What can be said, a vocal is incredibly important and to get a very good recording you must make sure that more than just the technical factors are in place, it’s a lesson in psychology as well.

  11. David East says:

    I just received the Provoker and starting using it right away. So easy to operate! And the quality of the sound is incredible. I was having trouble getting my vocals where I wanted them in the mix, and the Provoker fixed my issue. I’ve also used your other plugins, and they have improved my sound 100%!! Thanks for such affordable, easy to use applications.

    • bvesco says:

      Thank you for the awesome testimony! Glad the plugins are working out so well for you, that’s what I love to hear.

  12. Pram Maven says:

    Strange, to see a tutorial on bringing a vocal front and center when the object of mixing is usually to bring it down so it fits and doesn’t float on top of everything. That’s not a criticism, just kind of interesting as it’s the opposite of the kind of tutorial I usually find.

    If anyone wants to know how to mix vocals so that they sound surgically implanted into the mix, I can help you with that. It’s kind of opposite of this, but you need a unidirectional cardioid mic for it to work right and the mixing process actually happens one track at a time, as you record (and tweak hardware before the computer). Backwards, I know. I’m very backwards. But it works.

    Don Carlson
    singer/producer

  13. murshid says:

    Hey Ben, I purchased provoker after watching your tutorials yesterday and tried installing it, little did i know that its only for windows and not MAC. I am now stuck as i cannot use this on my pro tools/MAC. Is there anyway to make it run on mac, and if not is it possible for a refund. I really enjoy your tutorials. Thanks a lot,

    Murshid

  14. Provoker seems like a great product. I am also interested in a Mac version of this product. Is there a lower price for the OSX compatible build? Or do you need a beta tester for it? Please let me know how to get it. Thanks!